1790 Pennsylvania Constitution - Liberty Bell

Constitution of Pennsylvania 1790

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We, the people of the commonwealth of Pennsylvania, ordain and establish this constitution for its government.




Section 1. The legislative power of this commonwealth shall be vested in ageneral assembly, which shall consist of a senate and house of representatives.

 Sec. 2. The representatives shall be chosen, annually, by the citizens of the city of Philadelphia, of each county respectively, on the second Tuesday of October.

 Sec. 3. No person shall be a representative, who shall not have attained the age of twenty-one years, and have been a citizen and inhabitant of the State three years next preceding his election, and the last year thereof an inhabitant of the city or county in which he shall be chosen; unless he shall have been absent on the public business of the United States, or of this State. No person, residing within any city, town, or borough, which shall be entitled to a separate representation, shall be elected a member for any county; nor shall any person residing without the limits of any such city, town, or borough, be elected a member therefor.

 Sec. 4. Within three years after the first meeting of the general assembly, and within every subsequent term of seven years, an enumeration of the taxable inhabitants shall be made, in such manner as shall be directed by law. The number of representatives shall, at the several periods of making such enumeration, be fixed by the legislature, and apportioned among the city of Philadelphia and the several counties, according to the number of taxable inhabitants in each; and shall never be less than sixty, nor greater than one hundred. Each county shall have, at least, one representative; but no county,hereafter erected, shall be entitled to a separate representation, until a sufficient number of taxable inhabitants shall be contained within it, to entitle them to one representative, agreeably to the ratio which shall then be established.

 Sec. 5. The senators shall be chosen for four years by the citizens of Philadelphia, and of the several counties, at the same time, in the same manner, and at the same places where they shall vote for representatives.

 Sec. 6. The number of senators shall, at the several periods of making thee numeration before mentioned, be fixed by the legislature, and apportioned among the districts, formed as hereinafter directed, according to the number oftaxable inhabitants in each; and shall never be less than one-fourth, nor greater than one-third, of the number of representatives.

 Sec. 7. The senators shall be chosen in districts, to be formed by the legislature, each district containing such a number of taxable inhabitants asshall be entitled to elect not more than four senators. When a district shallbe composed of two or more counties, they shall be adjoining. Neither the cityof Philadelphia nor any county shall be divided in forming a district.

 Sec. 8. No person shall be a senator, who shall not have attained the age oftwenty-five years, and have been a citizen and inhabitant of the State fouryears next before his election, and the last year thereof an inhabitant of the district for which he shall be chosen, unless he shall have been absent on the public business of the United States, or of this State.

 Sec. 9. Immediately after the senators shall be assembled, in consequence of the first election, subsequent to the first enumeration, they shall be divided,by lot, as equally as may be, into four classes. The seats of the senators of the first class shall be vacated at the expiration of the first year, of the second class at the expiration of the second year, of the third class at the expiration of the third year, and of the fourth class at the expiration of the fourth year; so that one-fourth may be chosen every year.

 Sec. 10. The general assembly shall meet on the first Tuesday of December in every year, unless sooner convened by the governor.

 Sec. 11. Each house shall choose its speaker and other officers; and the senate shall also choose a speaker pro tempore, when the speaker shall exercise the office of governor.

 Sec. 12. Each house shall judge of the qualifications of its members.Contested elections shall be determined by a committee, to be selected, formed,and regulated in such manner as shall be directed by law. A majority of each house shall constitute a quorum to do business; but a smaller number may adjourn from day to day, and may be authorized, by law, to compel the attendance of absent members, in such manner, and under such penalties, as maybe provided.

 Sec. 13. Each house may determine the rules of its proceedings, punish its members for disorderly behavior, and, with the concurrence of two-thirds, expela member, but not a second time for the same cause; and shall have all otherpowers necessary for a branch of the legislature of a free State.

 Sec. 14. Each house shall keep a journal of its proceedings, and publish them weekly, except such parts as may require secrecy: And the yeas and nays of the members on any question shall, at the desire of any two of them, be entered onthe journals.

 Sec. 15. The doors of each house, and of committees of the whole, shall be open unless when the business shall be such as ought to be kept secret.

 Sec. 16. Neither house shall, without the consent of the other, adjourn formore than three days, nor to any other place than that in which the two housesshall be sitting.

 Sec. 17. The senators and representatives shall receive a compensation for their services, to be ascertained by law, and paid out of the treasury of the commonwealth. They shall, in all cases, except treason, felony, and breach or surety of the peace, be privileged from arrest during their attendance at the session of the respective houses, and in going to and returning from the same:And for any speech or debate in either house they shall not be questioned inother place.

 Sec. 18. No senator or representative shall, during the time for which he shall have been elected, be appointed to any civil office under this commonwealth, which shall have been created, or the emoluments of which shall have been increased, during such time; and no member of Congress, or otherperson holding any office (except of attorney at law in the militia) under theUnited States, or this commonwealth, shall be a member of either house during his continuance in Congress, or in office.

 Sec. 19. When vacancies happen in either house, the speaker shall issue writsof election to fill such vacancies.

 Sec. 20. All bills for raising revenue shall originate in the house of representatives; but the senate may propose amendments, as in other bills.

 Sec. 21. No money shall be drawn from the treasury, but in consequence of appropriations made by law.

 Sec. 22. Every bill, which shall have passed both houses, shall be presented to the governor. If he approve, he shall sign it; but if he shall not approve, he shall return it, with his objections, to the house in which it shall have originated, who shall enter the objections at large upon their journals, and proceed to reconsider it. If after such reconsideration two-thirds of that house shall agree to pass the bill, it shall be sent, with the objections, to the other house, by which likewise it shall be reconsidered; and if approved bytwo-thirds of that house it shall be a law. But in such cases the votes ofboth houses shall be determined by yeas and nays, and the names of the persons voting for or against the bill shall be entered on the journals of each house respectively. If any bill shall not be returned by the governor within ten days (Sundays excepted) after it shall have been presented to him,, it shall bea law, in like manner as if he had signed it, unless the general assembly, by their adjournment, prevent its return; in which case it shall be a law, unlesssent back within three days after their next meeting.

 Sec. 23. Every order, resolution, or vote to which the concurrence of both houses may be necessary (except on a question of adjournment) shall bepresented to the governor, and, before it shall take effect, be approved by him, or, being disapproved, shall be repassed by two-thirds of both houses,according to the rules and limitations prescribed in case of a bill.



Section 1. The supreme executive power of this commonwealth shall be vestedin a governor.

 Sec. 2. The governor shall be chosen on the second Tuesday of October, by thecitizens of the commonwealth, at the places where they shall respectively votefor representatives. The returns of every election for governor shall besealed up, and transmitted to the seat of government, directed to the speaker of the senate, who shall open and publish them in the presence of the membersof both houses of the legislature. The person having the highest number ofvotes shall be governor. But if two or more shall be equal and highest invotes, one of them shall be chosen governor by the joint vote of the members ofboth houses. Contested elections shall be determined by a committee, to beselected from both houses of the legislature, and formed and regulated in suchmanner as shall be directed by law.

 Sec. 3. The governor shall hold his office during three years from the thirdTuesday of December next ensuing his election, and shall not be capable ofholding it longer than nine in any term of twelve years.

 Sec. 4. He shall be, at least, thirty years of age, and have been a citizenand inhabitant of this State seven years next before his election; unless heshall have been absent on the public business of the United States, or of thisState.

 Sec. 5. No member of Congress, or person holding any office under the UnitedStates, of this State, shall exercise the office of governor.

 Sec. 6. The governor shall, at stated times, receive for his services acompensation, which shall be neither increased nor diminished during the periodfor which he shall have been elected.

 Sec. 7. He shall be commander-in-chief of the army and navy of thiscommonwealth, and of the militia; except when they shall be called into theactual service of the United States.

Sec. 8. He shall appoint all officers, whose offices are established by thisconstitution, or shall be established by law, and whose appointments are notherein otherwise provided for; but no person shall be appointed to an officewithin any county who shall not have been a citizen and inhabitant therein oneyear next before his appointment, if the county shall have been so longerected; but if it shall not have been so long erected, then within the limitsof the county or counties out of which it shall have been taken. No member ofCongress from this State, nor any person holding or exercising any office oftrust or profit under the United States, shall, at the same time, hold orexercise the office of judge, secretary, treasurer, prothonotary, register ofwills, recorder of deeds, sheriff, or any office in this State to which asalary is by law annexed, or any other office which future legislatures shalldeclare incompatible with offices or appointments under the United States.

 Sec. 9. He shall have power to remit fines and forfeitures, and grantreprieves and pardons, except in cases of impeachment.

 Sec. 10. He may require information, in writing, from the officers in theexecutive department, upon any subject relating to the duties of theirrespective offices.

 Sec. 11. He shall, from time to time, give to the general assemblyinformation of the state of the commonwealth, and recommend to theirconsideration such measures as they shall judge expedient.

 Sec. 12. He may, on extraordinary occasions, convene the general assembly;and in case of disagreement between the two houses with respect to the time ofadjournment, adjourn them to such time as he shall think proper, not exceedingfour months.

 Sec. 13. He shall take care that the laws be faithfully executed.

 Sec. 14. In case of the death or resignation of the governor, or of hisremoval from office, the speaker of the senate shall exercise the office ofgovernor until another governor be duly qualified. And if the trial of acontested election shall continue longer than until the third Tuesday inDecember next ensuing the election of a governor, the governor of the lastyear, or the speaker of the senate who may be in the exercise of executiveauthority, shall continue therein until the determination of such contestedelection, and until a governor shall be qualified as aforesaid.

 Sec. 15. A secretary shall be appointed and commissioned during thegovernor's continuance in office, if he shall so long behave himself well. Heshall keep a fair register of all the official acts and proceedings of thegovernor, and shall, when required, lay the same, and all papers, minutes, andvouchers relative thereto, before either branch of the legislature, and shallperform such other duties as shall be enjoined him by law.




 Section 1. In elections by the citizens, every freeman of the age oftwenty-one years, having resided in the State two years next before theelection, and within that time paid a State or county tax, which shall havebeen assessed at least six months before the election, shall enjoy the rightsof an elector: Provided, That the sons of persons qualified asaforesaid, between the ages of twenty-one and twenty-two years, shall beentitled to vote, although they shall not have paid taxes.

Sec. 2. All elections shall be by ballot, except those by persons in theirrepresentative capacities, who shall vote viva voce.

Sec. 3. Electors shall, in all cases except treason, felony, and breach orsurety of the peace, be privileged from arrest during their attendance on elections, and in going to and returning from them.



 Section 1. The house of representatives shall have the sole power ofimpeaching.

 Sec. 2. All impeachments shall be tried by the senate. When sitting for thatpurpose, the senators shall be upon oath or affirmation. No person shall beconvicted without the concurrence of two-thirds of the members present.

 Sec. 3. The governor, and all other civil officers under this commonwealth,shall be liable to impeachment for any misdemeanor in office. But judgment, insuch cases, shall not extend further than to removal from office, anddisqualification to hold any office of honor, trust, or profit under thiscommonwealth. The party, whether convicted or acquitted, shall nevertheless byliable to indictment, trial, judgment, and punishment according to law.



 Section 1. The judicial power of this commonwealth shall be vested in asupreme court, in courts of oyer and terminer and general jail-delivery, in acourt of common pleas, orphans' court, register's court, and a court of quartersessions of the peace for each county, in justices of the peace, and in suchother courts as the legislature may, from time to time, establish.

 Sec. 2. The judges of the supreme court, and of the several courts of commonpleas, shall hold their offices during good behavior. But for any reasonablecause, which shall not be sufficient ground of impeachment, the governor mayremove any of them, on the address of two-thirds of each branch of thelegislature. The judges of the supreme court and the presidents of the severalcourts of common pleas shall, at stated times, receive for their services anadequate compensation, to be fixed by law, which shall not be diminished duringtheir continuance in office; but they shall receive no fees or perquisites ofoffice, nor hold any other office of profit under this commonwealth.

 Sec. 3. The jurisdiction of the supreme court shall extend over the State,and the judges thereof shall, by virtue of their offices, be justices of oyerand terminer and general jail-delivery in the several counties.

 Sec. 4. Until it shall be otherwise directed by law, the several courts ofcommon pleas shall be established in the following manner: The governor shallappoint, in each county, not fewer than three nor more than four judges, who,during their continuance in office, shall reside in such county. The Stateshall be divided by law into circuits, none of which shall include more thansix nor fewer than three counties. A president shall be appointed of thecourts in each circuit, who, during his continuance in office, shall residetherein. The president and judges, any two of whom shall be a quorum, shallcompose the respective courts of common pleas.

 Sec. 5. The judges of the court of common pleas in each county shall, byvirtue of their offices, be justices of oyer and terminer and generaljail-delivery, for the trial of capital and other offenders therein; any of thesaid judges, the president being one, shall be a quorum; but they shall nothold a court of oyer and terminer or jail-delivery in any county when thejudges of the supreme court, or any of them, shall be sitting in the samecounty. The party accused, as well as the commonwealth, may, under suchregulations as shall be prescribed by law, removed the indictment andproceedings, or a transcript thereof, into the supreme court.

 Sec. 6. The supreme court and the several courts of common pleas shall,beside the powers heretofore usually exercised by them, have the power of acourt of chancery, so far as relates to the perpetuating of testimony, theobtaining of evidence from places not within the State, and the care of personsand estates of those who are non compotes mentis. And the legislatureshall vest in the said courts such other powers to grant relief in equity asshall be found necessary; and may, from time to time, enlarge or diminish thosepowers, or vest them in such other courts as they shall judge proper for thedue administration of justice.

 Sec. 7. The judges of the court of common pleas of each county, any two ofwhom shall be a quorum, shall compose the court of quarter sessions of thepeace and orphans' court thereof; and the register of wills, together with thesaid judges, or any two of them, shall compose the register's court of eachcounty.

 Sec. 8. The judges of the courts of common pleas shall, within theirrespective counties, have the like powers with the judges of the supreme courtto issue writs of certiorari to the justices of the peace, and to causetheir proceedings to be brought before them, and the like right and justice tobe done.

 Sec. 9. The president of the courts in each circuit within such circuit, andthe judges of the court of common pleas within their respective counties, shallbe justices of the peace, so far as relates to criminal matters.

 Sec. 10. The governor shall appoint a competent number of justices of thepeace, in such convenient districts, in each county, as are or shall bedirected by law; they shall be commissioned during good behavior, but may beremoved on conviction of misbehavior in office, or of any infamous crime, or onthe address of both houses of the legislature.

 Sec. 11. A register's office for the probate of wills and granting letters ofadministration, and an office for the recording of deeds, shall be kept in eachcounty.

 Sec. 12. The style of all process shall be , "The commonwealth ofPennsylvania;" all prosecutions shall be carried on in the name and by theauthority of the commonwealth of Pennsylvania, and conclude, "against the peaceand dignity of the same."



 Section 1. Sheriffs and coroners shall, at the times and places of electionof representatives, be chosen by the citizens of each county; two persons shallbe chosen for each office, one of them, for each respectively, shall beappointed by the governor. They shall hold their offices for three years, ifthey shall so long behave themselves well, and until a successor be dulyqualified; but no person shall be twice chosen or appointed sheriff in any termof six years. Vacancies in either of the said offices shall be filled by a newappointment, to be made by the governor, to continue until the next generalelection, and until a successor shall be chosen and qualified as aforesaid.

 Sec. 2. The freemen of this commonwealth shall be armed and disciplined forits defence. Those who conscientiously scruple to bear arms shall not becompelled to do so, but shall pay an equivalent for personal service. Themilitia officers shall be appointed in such manner and for such time as shallbe directed by law.

 Sec. 3. Prothonotaries, clerks of the peace and orphans' courts, recorders ofdeeds, registers of wills, and sheriffs shall keep their offices in thecounty-town of the county in which they respectively shall be officers, unlesswhen the governor shall, for special reasons, dispense therewith for any term,not exceeding five years, after the county shall have been erected.

 Sec. 4. All commissions shall be in the name and by the authority of thecommonwealth of Pennsylvania, and be sealed with the State seal, and signed bythe governor.

 Sec. 5. The State treasurer shall be appointed, annually, by the joint voteof the members of both houses. All other officers in the treasury department,attorneys at law, election officers, officers relating to taxes, to the poorand highways, constables, and other township officers, shall be appointed insuch manner as is or shall be directed by law.



Section. 1. The legislature shall, as soon as conveniently may be, provide,by law, for the establishment of schools throughout the State, in such mannerthat the poor may be taught gratis.

 Sec. 2. The arts and sciences shall be promoted in one or more seminaries oflearning.

 Sec. 3. The rights, privileges, immunities, and estates of religioussocieties and corporate bodies shall remain as if the constitution of thisState had not been altered or amended.


Members of the general assembly, and all officers, executive and judicial,shall be bound, by oath or affirmation, to support the constitution of thiscommonwealth, and to perform the duties of their respective offices withfidelity.



That the general, great, and essential principles of liberty and freegovernment may be recognized and unalterably established, we declare--

 Section 1. That all men are born equally free and independent, and havecertain inherent and indefeasible rights, among which are those of enjoying anddefending life and liberty, of acquiring, possessing, and protecting propertyand reputation, and of pursuing their own happiness.

 Sec. 2. That all power is inherent in the people, and all free governmentsare founded on their authority and instituted for their peace, safety, andhappiness. For the advancement of those ends, they have at all times anunalienable and indefeasible right to alter, reform, or abolish theirgovernment, in such manner as they may think proper.

 Sec. 3. That all men have a natural and indefeasible right to worshipAlmighty god according to the dictates of their own consciences; that no mancan of right be compelled to attend, erect, or support any place of worship, orto maintain any ministry, against his consent; that no human authority can, inany case whatever, control or interfere with the rights of conscience; and thatno preference shall ever be given, by law, to any religious establishment ormodes of worship.

 Sec. 4. That no person, who acknowledges the being of a God and a futurestate of rewards and punishments, shall, on account of his religioussentiments, be disqualified to hold any office or place of trust or profitunder this commonwealth.

 Sec. 5. That elections shall be free and equal.

 Sec. 6. That trial by jury shall be as heretofore, and the right thereofremain inviolate.

 Sec. 7. That the printing-presses shall be free to every person whoundertakes to examine the proceedings of the legislature, or any branch ofgovernment, and no law shall ever be made to restrain the rights thereof. Thefree communication of thoughts and opinions is one of the invaluable rights ofman; and every citizen may freely speak, write, and print on any subject, beingresponsible for the abuse of that liberty. In prosecutions for the publicationof papers investigating the official conduct of officers or men in a publiccapacity, or where the matter published is proper for public information, the truth thereof may be given in evidence; and in all indictments for libels thejury shall have a right to determine the law and the facts, under the directionof the court, as in other cases.

 Sec. 8. That the people shall be secure in their persons, houses, papers, andpossessions from unreasonable searches and seizures; and that no warrant tosearch any place, or to seize any person or things, shall issue, withoutdescribing them as nearly as may be, nor without probable cause, supported byoath or affirmation.

 Sec. 9. That in all criminal prosecutions the accused hath a right to beheard by himself and his counsel, to demand the nature and cause of theaccusation against him, to meet the witnesses face to face, to have compulsoryprocess for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and, in prosecutions byindictment or information, a speedy public trial, by an impartial jury of thevicinage; that he cannot be compelled to give evidence against himself, nor canhe be deprived of his life, liberty, or property, unless by the judgment of hispeers or the law of the land.

 Sec. 10. That no person shall, for any indictable offence, be proceededagainst criminally by information, except in cases arising in the land or navalforces, or in the militia, when in actual service in time of war or publicdanger, or, by leave of the court, for oppression and misdemeanor in office.No person shall, for the same offence, be twice put in jeopardy of life orlimb; nor shall any man's property be taken or applied to public use withoutthe consent of his representatives, and without just compensation being made.

 Sec. 11. That all courts shall be open, and every man, for an injury done himin his lands, goods, person, or reputation, shall have remedy by the due courseof law, and right and justice administered without sale, denial, or delay.Suits may be brought against the commonwealth in such manner, in such courts,and in such cases as the legislature may by law direct.

Sec. 12. That no power of suspending laws shall be exercised, unless by thelegislature or its authority.

 Sec. 13. That excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive finesimposed, nor cruel punishments inflicted.

 Sec. 14. That all prisoners shall be bailable by sufficient sureties, unlessfor capital offences, when the proof is evident or presumption great; and theprivilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended, unlesswhen, in cases of rebellion or invasion, the public safety may require it.

 Sec. 15. That no commission of oyer and terminer or jail-delivery shall beissued.

 Sec. 16. That the person of a debtor, where there is not strong presumptionof fraud, shall not be continued in prison, after delivering up his estate forthe benefit of his creditors, in such manner as shall be prescribed by law.

 Sec. 17. That no ex post facto law, nor any law impairing contracts,shall be made.

 Sec. 18. That no person shall be attained of treason or felony by thelegislature.

 Sec. 19. That no attainder shall work corruption of blood, nor, except duringthe life of the offender, forfeiture of estate to the commonwealth; that theestates of such persons as shall destroy their own lives shall descend or vestas in case of natural death; and if any person shall be killed by casualty,there shall be no forfeiture by reason thereof.

 Sec. 20. That the citizens have a right, in a peaceable manner, to assembletogether for their common good, and to apply to those invested with the powersof government for redress of grievances, or other proper purposes, by petition,address, or remonstrance.

 Sec. 21. That the right of citizens to bear arms, in defence of themselvesand the State, shall not be questioned.

 Sec. 22. That no standing army shall, in time of peace, be kept up withoutthe consent of the legislature; and the military shall in all cases and at alltimes be in strict subordination to the civil power.

 Sec. 23. That no soldier shall, in time of peace, be quartered in any housewithout the consent of the owner, nor in time of war but in a manner to beprescribed by law.

 Sec. 24. That the legislature shall not grant any title of nobility orhereditary distinction, nor create any office the appointment of which shall befor a longer term than during good behavior.

 Sec. 25. That emigration from the State shall not be prohibited.

 Sec. 26. To guard against transgressions of the high powers which we havedelegated, we declare, that everything in this article is excepted out of thegeneral powers of government, and shall forever remain inviolate.


That no inconvenience may arise from the alterations and amendments in the  constitution of   this commonwealth, and in order to carry the same into completeoperation, it is hereby declared and ordained:

 Section 1. That all laws of this commonwealth, in force at the time of makingthe said alterations and amendments in the said constitution, and notinconsistent therewith, and all rights, actions, prosecutions, claims, andcontracts, as well of individuals as of bodies-corporate, shall continue as ifthe said alterations and amendments had not been made.

 Sec. 2. That the president and supreme executive council shall continue toexercise the executive authority of this commonwealth, as heretofore, until thethird Tuesday of December next; but no intermediate vacancies in the councilshall be supplied by new elections.

 Sec. 3. That all officers in the appointment of the executive departmentshall continue in the exercise of the duties of their respective offices untilthe first day of September, [1791], (unless their commissions shall soonerexpire by their own limitations, or the said offices become vacant by death ofresignation,) and no longer, unless reappointed and commissioned by thegovernor; except that the judges of the supreme court shall hold their officesfor the terms in their commissions respectively expressed.

 Sec. 4. That justice shall be administered in the several counties of theState, until the period aforesaid, by the same justices, in the same courts,and in the same manner as heretofore.

 Sec. 5. That no person now in commission as sheriff shall be eligible at thenext election for a longer term than will, with the time which he shall haveserved in the said office, complete the term of three years.

 Sec. 6. That, until the first enumeration shall be made, as directed in thefourth section of the first article of the constitution established by thisconvention, the city of Philadelphia and the several counties shall berespectively entitled to elect the same number of representatives as is nowprescribed by law.

 Sec. 7. That the first senate shall consist of eighteen members, to be chosenin districts formed as follows, to wit: The city of Philadelphia and thecounties of Philadelphia and Delaware shall be a district, and elect threesenators; the county of Chester shall be a district, and shall elect onesenator; the county of Bucks shall be a district, and shall elect one senator[and thus: Montgomery, 1; Northampton, 1; Lancaster and York, 3; Berks and Dauphin, 2; Cumberland and Mifflin, 1; Northumberland, Luzerne, and Huntingdon,1; Bedford and Franklin, 1; Westmoreland and Allegheny, 1; Washington andFayette, 2], which senators shall serve until the first enumeration beforementioned shall be made, and the representation in both houses of thelegislature shall be established by law, and chosen as in the constitutiondirected. Any vacancies which shall happen in the senate, within the saidtime, shall be supplied as prescribed in the nineteenth section of the firstarticle.

 Sec. 8. That the elections of senators shall be conducted, and the returnsthereof made to the senate, in the same manner as is prescribed by theelection-laws of the State for conducting and making return of the election ofrepresentatives. In those districts which consist of more than one county, thejudges of the district elections within each county, after having formed areturn of the whole election within that county, in such manner as is directedby law, shall send the same, by one or more of their number, to the place here in after mentioned within the district, of which such county is a part,where the judges so met shall compare and cast up the several county returnsand execute, under their hands and seals, one general and true return for thewhole district; that is to say, the judges of the district composed of the cityof Philadelphia, and the counties of Philadelphia and Delaware, shall meet inthe State-house in the city of Philadelphia the judges of the district composedof the counties of Lancaster and York shall meet at the court-house in thecounty of Lancaster; the judges . . . . on the third Tuesday in October,respectively, for the purposes aforesaid.

 Sec. 9. That the election of the governor shall be conducted in the severalcounties in the manner prescribed by the laws of the State for the election ofrepresentatives; and the returns in each county shall be sealed by the judgesof the elections, and transmitted to the president of the supreme executive council, directed to the speaker of the senate, as soon after the election asmay be.

 Done in convention, the second day of September, in the year of our Lord[1790], and of the Independence of the United States of America the fifteenth.In testimony whereof we have hereunto subscribed our names.


Joseph Redman, Secretary

J. Shallus, Assistant Secretary

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